Effect of Blended Learning Models on Students’ Academic Achievement and Retention in Science Education

Tope Gloria Olatunde-Aiyedun 1 * , Samuel Olorunfemi Adams 2 *
More Detail
1 Department of Science and Environmental Education, University of Abuja, Abuja, NIGERIA
2 Department of Statistics, University of Abuja, Abuja, NIGERIA
* Corresponding Author
Eurasian Journal of Science and Environmental Education, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp. 35-42. https://doi.org/10.30935/ejsee/12613
OPEN ACCESS   132 Views   72 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


The norm for pedagogical situations in the 21st century in education is digitization. After the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, the use of blended learning models (BLMs) at universities has become crucial. The use of teaching in the classroom, particularly in higher education, enhances student learning. In order to build effective teaching-learning, blended learning (BL) places learners in a new learning environment based on technology. The purpose of the current study is to figure out the viability of embracing a BL method in learning science course at the secondary school level. The current study project has been conducted using a quasi-experimental design. The University of Abuja’s Center for Distance Learning and Continuous Education recruited 120 undergraduate students for this study. The blended learning model success test (BMAT) and blended learning model retention test (BMRT) were the instruments used for data gathering. The experimental groups’ students were instructed using BL methods for eight weeks. The three tests, including the pre-test, post-test I, and post-test II, were given to six groups. Statistical package for social science version 26 was utilized to assess the hypotheses and provide response to the research questions with mean score, standard variation, and error, while the inferential statistics utilized related samples t-test at level of significant of 0.05. Results showed a significant difference between the mean pre- and post-test achievement and retention capacity of students who were receiving science instruction through BL. The study concluded that learners’ achievement and retention in science are significantly improved by BLMs. It is recommended that BL approaches be utilized for teaching the sciences because they improve the learner’s retention and academic performance.


Olatunde-Aiyedun, T. G., & Adams, S. O. (2022). Effect of Blended Learning Models on Students’ Academic Achievement and Retention in Science Education. Eurasian Journal of Science and Environmental Education, 2(2), 35-42. https://doi.org/10.30935/ejsee/12613


  • Abumosa, M., & Al-Sous, S. (2010). The effect of utilizing blended learning strategy on the ability of teachers in designing and producing educational multimedia. http://kenanaonline.com/files/0035/35495/Mofeed-Jordan-paperfinal.doc
  • Adams, S. O., & Onwadi, R. U. (2020). An empirical comparison of computer-assisted instruction and field trip instructional methods on teaching of basic science and technology curriculum in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(4), 22-35. https://doi:10.23918/ijsses.v7i4p22
  • Adams, S. O., Onwadi, R. U., & Jason, U. I. (2021). Effect of inductive and deductive teaching methods on students’ performance in basic science among junior secondary schools students: A gender study. American Journal of Education and Information Technology, 5(1), 27-36. https://doi:10.11648/j.ajeit.20210501.15
  • Akbarov, A. A., Gonen, K., & Aydogan, H. (2018). Students’ attitudes toward blended learning in EFL context. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 11(1), 61-68. https://doi.org/10.24193/adn.11.1.5
  • Alsalhi, N. R., Eltahir, M. E., & Al-Qatawneh, S. S. (2019). The effect of blended learning on the achievement of ninth grade students in science and their attitudes towards its use. Heliyon, 5(9), e02424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02424
  • Al-Shaer, M. R. I. (2013). Effect of a blended learning module on EFL students’ attitude in an introductory reading course in Al-Quds Open University setting. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 3(4), 224-242.
  • Amankwah-Amoah, J., Khan, Z., Wood, G., & Knight, G. (2021). COVID-19 and digitalization: The great acceleration. Journal of Business Research, 136, 602-611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.08.011
  • Ayob, N. F. S., Halim, N. D. A., Zulkifli, N. N., Zaid, N. M., & Mokhtar, M. (2020). Overview of blended learning: The effect of station rotation model on students’ achievement. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(6), 320-326. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.06.56
  • Bati, T. B., & Workneh, A. W. (2021). Evaluating integrated use of information technologies in secondary schools of Ethiopia using design-reality gap analysis: A school-level study. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 87(1), e12148. https://doi.org/10.1002/isd2.12148
  • Bryan, A., & Volchenkova, K. N. (2016). Blended learning: Definition, models, implications for higher education. Educational Sciences, 8(2), 24-30. https://doi.org/10.14529/ped160204
  • Chinwendu, O., & Nnoduka, O. C. (2020). Effect of blended learning on students’ retention of physics in federal colleges of education in Southeast, Nigeria. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 8(1), 66-76. https://doi.org/10.37745/ijeld/vol8.no1p.66-76
  • Chowdhury, F. (2020). Blended learning: How to flip the classroom at HEIs in Bangladesh? Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 13(2), 228-242. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIT-12-2018-0030
  • Cronje, J. C. (2020). Towards a new definition of blended learning. The Electronic Journal of eLearning, 18(2), 114-121. https://doi.org/10.34190/EJEL.
  • Dina, R. M., Sulisworo, D., Suparwoto, S., & Yudhiakto, P. (2020). Embedding the guided inquiry on blended learning to enhance conceptual understanding. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 9(1), 1480-1485.
  • Dudar, V. L., Riznyk, V. V., Kotsur, V. V., Pechenizka, S. S., & Kovtun, O. A. (2021). Use of modern technologies and digital tools in the context of distance and mixed learning. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S2), 733-750. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS2.1416
  • Dziuban, C., Graham C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: The new normal and emerging technologies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(3), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0087-5
  • Eachempati, P., Kumar, K. S. K., & Sumanth, K. N. (2016). Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 48(1), 25-28. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.193315
  • Egielewa, P., Idogho, P. O., Iyalomhe, F. O., & Cirella, G. T. (2022). COVID-19 and digitised education: Analysis of online learning in Nigerian higher education. E-Learning and Digital Media, 19(1), 19-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/20427530211022808
  • Ekpo, C. G., & Aiyedun, T. G. (2020). Effect of integration of photographic album teaching strategy on students’ performance in environmental education. The Environmental Studies Journal: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 3(1) 15-33.
  • Ibrahim, A. Y. (2020). Effect of blended learning on students’ achievement in senior secondary geography in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Knowledge Education, 1(1), 21-26. https://doi.org/10.37251/jske.v1i1.52
  • Kavitha, R. K., & Jaisingh, W. (2018). A study on the student experiences in blended learning environments. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 7(4S), 183-186.
  • Khamis, M. A. (2003). Instructional technology outputs (Mantogate). Dar Alkalema Puplishing.
  • Lin, Y.W., Tseng, C.L., & Chiang, P.J. (2017). The effect of blended learning in mathematics course. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13(3), 741-770. https://doi.org/10.12973/Eurasia.2017.00641a
  • Mendez, J. A., & Gonzalez, E. J. (2010). A reactive blended learning proposal for an introductory control engineering course. Computers & Education, 54(4), 856-865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.015
  • Mishra, S., & Devi, V. A. (2022). Technology and education 4.0-the new normal: Blended learning models (BLM). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361602174
  • Mozelius, P., & Hettiarachchi, E. (2017). Critical factors for implementing blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, 6(2), 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijicte-2017-0010
  • Olatunde-Aiyedun, T. G. (2021). Student teachers’ attitude towards teaching practice. International Journal of Culture and Modernity, 8, 6-17.
  • Olatunde-Aiyedun, T. G., Ogunode, N. J., & Eyiolorunse-Aiyedun, C. T. (2021). Assessment of virtual learning during COVID-19 lockdown in Nigerian public universities. Academicia Globe: Inderscience Research, 2(5) 159-175. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/S6N2Q
  • Poquet, O., & de Laat, M. (2021). Developing capabilities: Lifelong learning in the age of AI. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(4), 1695-1708. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13123
  • Reine, R., Juwono, F. H., & Wong, W. K. (2021). Reinventing the future online education using emerging technologies. Green Intelligent Systems and Applications, 1(1), 26-36. https://doi.org/10.53623/gisa.v1i1.42
  • Sahni, J. (2019). Does blended learning enhance student engagement? Evidence from higher education. Journal of e-Learning and Higher Education, 2019(2019), 121518. https://doi.org/10.5171/2019.121518
  • Salta, K., Paschalidou, K., Tsetseri, M., & Koulougliotis, D. (2022). Shift from a traditional to a distance learning environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Science & Education, 31, 93-122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-021-00234-x
  • Selvakumar, S., & Sivakumar, P. (2019). Impact of blended learning environment on academic achievement of engineering students. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(12), 2278-3075. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijitee.L3825.1081219
  • Selvakumar, S., Sivakumar, P., & Daphine, R. (2020). Leverage of learning science through blended learning technique. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 9(4), 2052-2056. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.D8656.049420
  • Sivakumar, P. (2019). Effectiveness of blended learning in teacher education programme through distance mode. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Distance Learning, Research, and Innovation for a Digital Society (pp. 151-159). STOU & UNESCO.
  • Sivakumar, P., & Selvakumar, S. (2019). Blended learning package: It’s effectiveness on students’ performance and retention in higher secondary physics course. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 8(10), 1316-1320.
  • Tuma, F. (2021). The use of educational technology for interactive teaching in lectures. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 62, 231-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.01.051
  • Tyas, A. S. P., Muam, A., Sari, Y. I. H., & Dewantara, C. (2020). The effectiveness of blended learning in improving students’ workplace communication skills: A case study on olive website test result. Lingua Cultura, 14(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v14i1.6130
  • Viditi, R. (2022). Blended learning models (BLM). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/361602174
  • Wichadee, S. (2017). Development of the blended learning model using edmodo for maximizing students’ oral proficiency and motivation, iJET, 12(2), 137-154. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v12i02.6324